Fungi Associated with Cysts of Globodera rostochiensis, Heterodera cruciferae and Heterodera schachii (Nematoda: Heteroderidae)

Mehmet Karakaş


Cysts of Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber) Behrens from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields and Heterodera cruciferae Franklin from cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. rubra L.) fields and Heterodera schachtii Schmidt from sugar-beet (Beta vulgaris L.) fields in Turkey were collected and examined for the presence of fungi. Of the total of 196 cysts of G. rostochiensis, 39.7% were colonized by one or more of 7 different species of fungi, all of which were from the genera Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Verticillium and Alternaria. Of the total of 136 cysts of H. cruciferae, 37.5% were colonized by one or more of 7 different species of fungi, all of which were from the genera Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, Nematophthora, Periconia and Verticillium, and 38.9% of the 154 cysts of H. schachtii were colonized by one or more of 7 different species from the same genera.

Full Text:



Gray, N.F. (1983) Ecology of nematophagous fungi: Distribution and habitat. Ann. of Appl. Biol.,

(3), 501-509.

Nordbring-Hertz, B. (2004) Morphogenesis in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora –

an extensive plasticity of infection structures. Mycologist, 18, 125-133.

Liu, XZ., X. Meichun and C. Yongsheng (2009) The living strategy of nematophagous fungi.

Mycoscience 50, 20-25.

Jansson, H-B. and L.V. Lopez-Llorca (2001) Biology of nematophagous fungi In: Misra JK and Horn

BW (eds) Mycology: Trichomycetes, other Fungal Groups and Mushrooms. Enfield: SciencePublishers.

pp. 145-173.

Jansson, H-B. and L.V. Lopez-Llorca (2004) Control of nematodes by fungi. In: Arora DK (ed.) Fungal

Biotechnology in Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Applications. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp.


Kerry, B.R. (1990) An assessment of progress toward microbial control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

Suppl. J. Nematol., 22, 621-631.

Fekete, C., M. Tholandes., B. Rajashekar., D. Ahrén., E. Friman., T. Johansson and A. Tunlid (2008)

Paralysis of nematodes: shift in the transcriptome of the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium

haptotylum during infection of Caenorhabditis elegans. Environmental Microbiology, 10, 364-375.

Fresenius, G. (1852) Beitrage zur Mykologie. Heft 1-2. pp. 1-80.

Kerry, B.R. (1988) Fungal parasites of cyst nematodes. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 24, 293-305.

Nordbring-Hertz, B., H-B. Jansson and A. Tunlid (2006) Nematophagous fungi. Encyclopedia of Life

Sciences, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (doi: 10. 1038/npg.els.0004293), 1-11.

Tribe, H.T. (1980) Extent of disease in populations of Heterodera, with special reference to H.

schachtii. Ann. Appl. Biol., 92, 61-72.

Clovis, C.J. and R.A. Nolan (1983) Fungi associated with cysts, eggs and juveniles of the golden

nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) in Newfoundland. Nematologica, 29, 345-356.

Coosemans, J. (1991) Methods for introducing Verticillium chlamydosporium into soil. IOBC/WPRS

Bull., 14, 39-46.

Spiegel, Y., I. Chet and E. Cohn (1987) Use of chitin for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes. II. Mode

of action. Plant Soil, 98, 337-345.

Schlang, J.W., J.W. Stendel and J. Muller (1988) Influence of resistant green manure crops on the

population dynamics of Heterodera schachtii and its fungal egg parasites. Proceedings of the European

Society of Nematologists 19th International Nematology Symposium, Uppsala, Sweden, p. 69 (Abstr.).

Áhman, J., B. Ek., L. Rask and A. Tunlid (1996) Sequence analysis and regulation of a cuticle

degrading serine protease from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. Microbiology, 142,


Áhman, J., M. Olsson and T. Johansson (2002) Improving the pathogenicity of a nematode-trapping

fungus by genetic engineering of subtilisin with nematotoxic activity. Appl. and Environ. Microbiology,

, 3408-3415.

Fenwick, D.W. (1952) Heterodera rostochiensis. Sampling techniques and the limits of their

applicability. Proceedings of the International Nematology Symposium training course, Rome. pp. 8-17.

Barron, G.L. (1977) The nematode-destroying fungi. Canada: Lancaster Press, pp. 140.

Domsch, K.H., W. Gams and T.A. Anderson (1980) Compendium of soil fungi. Vol. 1. Academic

Press, New York. 859 pp.

Gerlach, W. and H. Nirenberg (1982) The genus Fusarium. A Pictorial Atlas. Biologische

Bundesanstalt für Land-und Forstwirtschalt. Institut für Microbiologie, Berlin-Dahlem. pp. 406.

Nelson, P.E., T.A. Toussoun and W.F.O. Marasas (1983) Fusarium species –An illustrated manual for

identification. The Pennsylvania State University Press. University park and London, pp. 193.

Nigh, E.A., I.J. Thomason and S.D. Van Gundy (1980) Identification and distribution of fungal

parasites of Heterodera schachtii eggs in California. Phytopathology, 70, 884-889.

Dackman, C. and B. Nordbring-Hertz (1985) Fungal parasities of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera

avenae in southern Sweden. J. Nematol., 17, 50-55.

Morgan-Jones, G., J.F. White and R. Rodriquez-Kabana (1984) Fungal parasites of Meloidogyne

incognita in an Alabama soybean field soil. Nematropica, 14, 93-96.

Yu, Q. (1989) Selection of promising fungi for biocontrol of nematodes. MS thesis. Catholic University

of Leuven. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Leuven, Belgium, 73 pp.

Persmark, L., A. Banck and H-B. Jansson (1996) Population dynamics of nematophagous fungi and

nematodes in an arable soil: vertical and seasonal fluctuations. Soil Biol. and Biochemist., 28, 1005-

Persmark, L. and B. Nordbring-Hertz (1997) Conidial trap formation of nematode-trapping fungi in soil

and soil extracts. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 22, 313-324.

Bordallo, J.J., L.V. Lopez-Llorca and H. Jansson (2002) Effects of egg-parasitic and nematode-trapping

fungi on plant roots. New Phytologest, 154, 491-499.

Monfort, E., L.V. Lopez-Llorca and H-B. Jansson (2005) Colonisation of seminal roots of wheat and

barley by egg-parasitic nematophagous fungi and their effects on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici

and development of root-rot. Soil Biol. and Biochemist., 37, 1229-1235.

Tunlid, A. and D. Ahrén (2011) Molecular mechanisms of the infection between nematode-trapping

fungi and nematodes-lessons from genomics. In: Biological Control of plant parasitic nematodes:

building coherence between microbial ecology and molecular mechanisms. (Spiegel, I. and K. Davies,

ed.) Springer, Heidelberg. pp. 145-169.