Evaluation of veterinary surgeons in Afyonkarahisar for Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks and strategies in Turkey.

Muhammet Nevzat ALGAN, Fatih Mehmet Birdane


Vaccination which is considered the only way to prevent FMD in the world does not always deliver the desired results. Does the phrase ‘we are vaccinating, but it does not always protect’ cause many factors which might be significant to be ignored also in Turkey? A survey consisting of 25 questions was prepared in order to find out what the clinician veterinary surgeons (n:40) thought about the applications and program in Afyonkarahisar province for 2009-2011 years. 

Only 50% (n:20) of the veterinary surgeons who participated in the survey thought vaccination was an efficient way to combat the disease,  20% (n:8) thought it was partially efficient while 30% (n:12) it was an inefficient method. 77.5% thought breeders to be uninformed while 80%  (n:32) indicated that they tried to inform animal owners.  It was calculated that it cost 101 ₺ (65,16 USD, 45,91 EU) to treat a bovine for FMD.

Those who participated in the survey believed that the combat program was inadequate (80%) and that it would not be possible to eradicate FMD with the valid law, regulation and applications (57.5% n:23). 

It is necessary to use new vaccines and diagnosis methods and develop feasible, realistic, different and reasonable methods in combating FMD.  The views and recommendations of veterinary surgeons, universities and breeders should be consulted when preparing national disease combat plans.


Foot and Mouth Disease, Cattle, vaccine, disease control

Full Text:



Alexandersen, S., Zhang, Z., Donaldson, A.I.&Garland, A.J.M. (2003) The pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease. J Comp Pathol, 129: 1–36.

Jamal, S.M. & Belsham,.G.J. (2013) Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future. Vet Res, 44: 116.

Aktas, M.S., Ozkanlar, Y.E., Oruc, E., Sozdutmaz, I., & Kirbas, A. (2015) Myocarditis associated with foot-and-mouth disease in suckling calves. Veterinarski Arhiv, 85 (3): 273-282.

Lyons NA, Alexander, N., Stӓrk, KD., Dulu TD., Rushton , J., & Fine, P.E. (2015) Impact of foot and mouth disease on mastitis and culling on a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya. Vet Res, 46:41.

Murphy C., Bashiruddin, J.B., Quan, M., Zhang Z & Alexandersen S. (2010) Foot-and-mouth disease viral loads in pigs in the early, acute stage of disease. Vet Rec, 166: 10-14.

Charleston, B., Bankowski, B.M., Gubbins, S., Chase-Topping, M.E., Schley, D., Howey, R., Barnett, P.V., Gibson, D., Juleff, N.D., & Woolhouse, M.E. (2011) Relationship between clinical signs and transmission of an infectious disease and the implications for control. Science, 332(6030): 726-729.

Askaroglu, H.H. & Bulut, A.N. (2011) FMD Progressive Control in Turkey. 39th General Session of the EuFMD Commission, 27/28 April 2011 Rome, Italy

SAP ENS. (2009). Şap Hastalığı. Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Şap Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü. http://vetkontrol.tarim.gov.tr/sap

Alkan M, (2011). Şap Hastalığı 2010 Yılı Serosurvey Sonuçları ve Aşılamanın Gerekliliği. Hayvan Hastalıkları ve Zararlıları ile Mücadele Ara Değerlendirme Toplantısı. 15-16 Nisan 2011. Antalya

Kızıl, S. & Alkan, M. (2008) Şap Hastalığının Ülke Ekonomisine ve Gıda Ticaretine Olan Etkileri. Hayvancılıkta Performans Dergisi, Ekim 2008.

Askaroglu, H.H. (2010) Turkey: FMD situation report. 79. Session of the Executive Committe of the EuFMD Commission, 16-17 March 2010, Sweden. Web: www.fao.org/ag/againfo/commissions/docs/excom79/App16.pdf

Adıguzel, A. (2011) Şap. Hayvan Hastalıkları ve Zararlıları ile Mücadele Ara Değerlendirme Toplantısı. 15-16 Nisan 2011. Antalya.

Rodriguez, L.L. & Gay, C.G. (2011) Development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease. Expert Rev Vaccines, 10: 377-38.

Barteling, S.J. & Sutmoller, P. (2002) Culling versus vaccination: challenging a dogma in veterinary (FMD) science. (FAO), EUFMD Commissions, 2002. Web:http://www.humanitarian.net/biodefense/ref/eufmd_app15.pdf (15-05-2011)

CFIA. (2011) Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Web: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/disemala/fmdfa/fmdfae.shtml

CSPH IASTATE (2011) Foot and Mouth Disease. The Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University. Web: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/disease.php?name=foot-and-mouth-disease

DEFRA. (2011) Exercise Silver Birch – Evaluation and Lessons Identified Report. Web: http://animalhealth.defra.gov.uk/news/180311-siver-birch.htm.

Dekker A. (2011). Ten years since FMD. Web: http://www.wur.nl/UK/research/ResearchBlog/2011/04/15/fmd.htm

Paton D, Charleston, B., Jackson, T. & Hammond, J. (2009) FMD: Current Situation of Research and Research Needs. OIE/FAO Global Conference on FMD, 24-26 June 2009, Paraguay.